J. L. 1979. Innervation and blood supply of the antler pedicle of
the Red deer. N Z Vet J. 27: 200-201.
R. H., and P J. Palfreyman. 1983. Properties of New Zealand Deer
Velvet, Part I: Search of the Literature Vol I.Massey University
and Wrightson NMA Ltd.
D. S. 1977. Study on the effect of antler on growth of animals.
III. Effect of antler on the ability of spermatogenesis of cocks
fertilization. Korean J Anim Sci 19: 407-412.
W. J. and J. W. Newberry. 1981 Light microscope studies of the ossification
proccess in developing antlers. In Antler Development in Cervidae.
ed. R. D. Boone. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute. Kingsville
Texas. pp 231-260.
M.L.; D. Gombitchi; D.E. Trentham. A pilot trial of oral type II
collagen in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis
& Rheumatism, 1996; 39 (4): 623-628.
G. A., Bubenik, A.B. 1986. Phylogeny and ontogeny of antlers and
neuro-endocrine regulation of the antler cycle - a review. Saeugetierk.
Mitt. 33(2/3): 97-123.
Bubenik GA, Schams D, White RJ, Rowell J, Blake J, Bartos L Comp Biochem
Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Feb;116(2):269-277 Seasonal levels
of reproductive hormones and their relationship to the antler cycle
of male and female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Department of Zoology,
University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Seasonal levels of LH,
FSH, testosterone (T), estradiol, progesterone (P), and prolactin
(PRL) were determined in the plasma of five adult bulls, and five
barren and four pregnant cows of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus),
which were sampled every 3 weeks for 54 weeks. The male reproductive
axis was sequentially activated; LH peaked in May-June (2 ng/ml),
FSH in June (51 ng/ml), and T in September (11.8 ng/ml). LH levels
in females reached a maximum in both groups at the end of August
(the beginning of the rut). Seasonal variation in FSH was minimal
in pregnant cows, but exhibited one elevation (41 ng/ml) in barren
ones in November. T levels in cows remained at barely detectable
levels. The decrease of T values observed in both groups in December
and March was not significant. PRL peaked in May in cows (135 ng/ml
pregnant, 140 ng/ml non-pregnant) and in June in bulls (92 ng/ml).
Estradiol was highest in bulls in the rut (August), in non-pregnant
cows in January and in pregnant cows in April, shortly before parturition.
P levels in the pregnant cows rose from September and peaked (9
ng/ml) shortly before parturition in April. In the non-pregnant
females P values increased and decreased several times before peaking
(5 ng/ml) in March. In the males, the variation of T and estradiol
levels correlated relatively well with the antler cycle but in the
females the variation of neither estradiol, progesterone nor T appeared
to be related to mineralization or casting of antlers.
J. T., Y. L Dubryakov and A. L. Taneyeva. 1969. The biological activity
of the antlers of deer and other deer species. Ivestio Sibirskogo
Ordelemia Akalemi Nank SISR. Biological Series No. 10 (2):112-115
J. T. 1980. Man and biologically active substances: The effects
of drugs, diet and pollution on health. Translated by J. H. Appleby.
Pargamon Press, Oxford.
Chen X, Jia Y, Wang B Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Feb;17(2):107-110
Inhibitory effects of the extract of pilose antler on monoamine
oxidase in aged mice. [Article in Chinese] Academy of Traditional
Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Jilin Province, Changchun.
It was demonstrated
that the water extract of Pilose Antler (WEPA) showed a higher inhibitory
effect on MAO-B activities in the liver and brain tissues of aged
mice, but nearly no effect on NAO-A. WEPA could significantly increase
the contents of 5-HT, NE and DA in the brain tissues of aged mice.
In vitro experiments revealed that the inhibition of WEPA on MAO-B
was competitive, but on MAO-A was of mixed-type.
A.; M. de Bernardi; L. Palmieri; P Lualdi; G. Mautone; G. Ronca.
Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneim-Forsch./Drug
Res 1991; 41(11): 76~77 I.
Elliott JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Bass JJ, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC, Breier
BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM Endocrinology 1992 May;130(5):2513-2520
Presence of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors and absence of
growth hormone receptors in the antler tip. Ruakura Agricultural
Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Red deer antler tips
in the growing phase were removed 60 days after the recommencement
of growth for autoradiographical studies and RRAs. Sections were
incubated with radiolabeled GH or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I),
with or without excess competing unlabeled hormones, and were analyzed
autoradiographically. There was negligible binding of [125I]GH in
any histological zone of antler sections. [125I]IGF-I showed highest
specific binding in the chondroblast zone to a receptor demonstrating
binding characteristics of the type 1 IGF receptor. The lowest specific
binding of [125I]IGF-I was to prechondroblasts. RRAs on antler microsomal
membrane preparations RRAs on antler microsomal membrane preparations
confirmed the absence of GH receptors and the presence of type 1
IGF receptors found by autoradiography. These findings suggest that
IGF-I may act in an endocrine manner in antler growth through a
receptor resembling the type 1 IGF receptor. The presence of type
1 receptors in the chondroblast zone implicates IGF-I involvement
in cartilage formation through matrixogenesis. There is no support
for IGF-I having a major role in mitosis in the antler.
Elliott JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Molan PC, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC, Breier
BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM, Bass JJ J Endocrinol 1993 Aug;138(2):233-242
Receptors for insulin-like growth factor-II in the growing tip of
the deer antler. Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
factor-II (IGF-II) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler
was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays
and affinity cross-linking studies. Antler tips from red deer stags
were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and cryogenically
cut into sections. Sections were incubated with radiolabelled IGF-II,
with or without an excess of competing unlabelled IGF-II and analysed
autoradiographically. Radiolabelled IGF-II showed high specific
binding in the reserve mesenchyme and perichondrium zones, which
are tissues undergoing rapid differentiation and cell division in
the antler. Binding to all other structural zones was low and significantly
(P < 0.001) less than binding to the reserve mesenchyme/perichondrium
zones. Radioreceptor assays on antler microsomal membrane preparations
revealed that the IGF-II binding was to a relatively homogeneous
receptor population (Kd = 1.3 x 10(-10) mol/l) with characteristics
that were not entirely consistent with those normally attributed
to the type 2 IGF receptor. Tracer binding was partly displaceable
by IGF-I and insulin at concentrations above 10 nmol/l. However,
affinity cross-linking studies revealed a single band migrating
at 220 kDa under non-reducing conditions, indicative of the type
2 IGF receptor. These results indicate that, in antler tip tissues,
IGF-II binds to sites which have different binding patterns and
properties from receptors binding IGF-I. This may have functional
significance as it appears that, whilst IGF-I has a role in matrix
development of cartilage, IGF-II may have a role in the most rapidly
differentiating and proliferating tissues of the antler.
P. F. and J. M. Suttie. 1985. Antler growth: Nutritional and endocrine
factors. In: Biology of Deer Production. Wellington, Royal Soc.
P F 1991 Velvet antler: the product and pharmacology. Proc. Deer
Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch of the NZ Vet Assoc). 8 169-180
Feng JQ, Chen D, Esparza J, Harris MA, Mundy GR, Harris SE Biochim Biophys
Acta 1995 Aug 22;1263(2):163-168 Deer antler tissue contains two
types of bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA transcripts. University
of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284-7877, USA.
Previously we isolated
a bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) cDNA from human prostate
cancer cells and found that the 5' noncoding exon 1 of this BMP-4
cDNA was different from that of human bone cell BMP-4 cDNA. Recently
we identified two alternate exon 1s, 1A and 1B, for BMP-4 gene by
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays
from fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. In order to further examine
alternate exon 1 usage in the BMP-4 gene, we screened deer antler
tissue cDNA library. We isolated two types of cDNA clones encoding
BMP-4 from this deer antler cDNA library. Sequencing of these clones
have revealed a single open reading frame encoding a 408 amino acid
protein. Comparison of 5' noncoding exon 1 portion of these cDNA
sequences with those of human bone and prostate BMP-4 cDNA sequences
and mouse BMP-4 genomic DNA sequence demonstrated that deer antler
tissue expresses both exon 1A and 1B containing BMP-4 mRNA transcripts.
This suggests that BMP-4 gene may contain alternate promoters or
alternate splicing sites in deer antler tissue.
Feng JQ, Chen D, Ghosh-Choudhury N, Esparza J, Mundy GR, Harris SE Biochim
Biophys Acta 1997 Jan 3;1350(1):47-52 Bone morphogenetic protein
2 transcripts in rapidly developing deer antler tissue contain an
extended 5' non-coding region arising from a distal promoter. Department
of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
To understand the regulation
of the BMP-2 gene expression, we recently isolated the BMP-2 gene
from a mouse genomic library and characterized the exon-intron structure
and promoter. RNase protection assay using poly (A)+ RNA of mouseosteoblasts
demonstrates that two regions in BMP-2 gene are protected by antisense
mouse BMP-2 RNA probes. These results demonstrate that BMP-2 gene
utilizes two alternative promoters, a distal and a proximal promoter.
In the present study we demonstrate that BMP-2 mRNA from rapidly
growing deer antler tissue has an extended 5' non-coding region
compared with the human and rat BMP-2 mRNA. The extended 5' non-coding
region in the deer mRNA represents transcripts from the upstream
distal promoter. This is the first evidence of a natural BMP-2 mRNA
from a bone-forming tissue that most likely initiated from the distal
transcription start site.
B.D.; M. Gilpin; D. Wiles. Strength training parameters in Edmonton
police recruits following supplementation with elk velvet antler
(EVA). University of Alberta. I 998.
S. 1980a. The hammer and the pesstle. New Scientist. 87 (1209):
S. 1980b. The drug that builds Russians. New Scientist 87 (1215):
Garcia RL, Sadighi M, Francis SM, Suttie JM, Fleming JS J Mol Endocrinol
1997 Oct;19(2):173-182 Expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing
velvet antler of the red deer Cervus elaphus. Department of Physiology
and Centre for Gene Research, Otago School of Medical Sciences,
Dunedin, New Zealand.
Antlers are organs of
bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer. In
addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate.
Nerves must grow at up to 1 cm/day. The control of this rapid growth
of nerves is unknown. We examined the relative expression of neurotrophin-3
(NT-3) mRNA in the different tissues of the growing antler tip and
along the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft of the red
deer Cervus elaphus, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase
chain reaction. Expression in the tip was found to be highest in
the epidermal/dermal layer and lowest in the cartilaginous layer
in all developmental stages examined. These data correlate well
with the density and pattern of innervation of these tissues. Along
the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft, expression was highest
in the segments subjacent to the tip and lowest near the base, arguing
for differences in the temporal expression of NT-3 in these segments.
The expression of NT-3 in cells isolated from the different layers
of 60-day antlers did not mirror that observed when whole tissues
were used and may suggest regional specificity of NT-3 expression
within antler tissues.
D.F; G.G. Sleivert; A. Goulding; S.R. Haines: J. M. Suttie. Clinical
evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet antler on muscle strength
and endurance in healthy male university athletes.
R. J. 1983. Deer antlers. Regeneration, Function, and evolution.
Academic Press Inc., Orlando FL (ISBN 0-12-293080-0), 336p.
Goss RJ Anat Rec 1995 Mar;241(3):291-302 Future directions in antler
research. Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence,
Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Through a series of
interrogatories, unsolved problems of antler evolution, anatomy,
development, physiology, and pathology are probed, with commentaries,
on the following prospects for future research: 1. How could these
improbable appendages have evolved mechanisms to commit suicide,
jettison the corpse, and regenerate new ones every year? 2. By what
developmental processes are antlers able to prescribe their own
morphogenesis with mirror image accuracy year after year and in
some cases produce deliberate asymmetries? 3. What causes the scalp
to transform into velvet skin as a deer's first antlers develop?
4. Why do healing pedicle stumps give rise to antler buds instead
of scar tissue? 5. How is the unprecedented rate of antler elongation
related to the diameter and length of the structure to be grown?
6. How come wound healing by pedicle skin is held in abeyance for
several months until new growth resumes? 7. How is it that tropical
deer regenerate antlers at any time of year, while in temperate
zones deer do so in seasonal unison? 8. How do deer find enough
calcium to make such massive antlers in only a few months? 9. What
is the nature of the bizarre tumors that some antlers grow following
C. M., Taylor, M.L., Horton, M.A., Loudon, A.S.I., and Arnett, T.R.
1989. Studies with cells derived from growing deer antler. J. Endocrinol.
Gray C, Hukkanen M, Konttinen YT, Terenghi G, Arnett TR, Jones SJ, Burnstock
G, Polak JM Neuroscience 1992 Oct;50(4):953-963 Rapid neural growth:
calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P-containing nerves
attain exceptional growth rates in regenerating deer antler. Department
of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College, London,
Deer antler is a unique
mineralized tissue which can produce very high growth rates of >
1 cm/day in large species. On completion of antler growth, the dermal
tissues which cover the antler are shed and the underlying calcified
tissue dies. After several months the old antler is discarded and
growth of a new one begins. It is known that deer antlers are sensitive
to touch and are innervated. The major aims of this study were to
identify and localize by immunohistochemical techniques the type
of innervation present, and to find out whether nerve fibres could
exhibit growth rates comparable to those of antler. We have taken
tissue sections from the tip and shaft of growing Red deer (Cervus
elaphus) antlers at three stages of development; shortly after the
initiation of regrowth, the rapid growth phase, and near the end
of growth. Incubation of tissue sections with antisera to protein
gene product 9.5 (a neural cytoplasmic protein), neurofilament triplet
proteins (a neural cytoskeletal protein), substance P and calcitonin
gene-related peptide (both of which are present in and synthesized
by sensory neurons) showed the presence of immunoreactive nerve
fibres in dermal, deep connective and perichondrial/periosteal tissues
at all stages of antler growth. The sparse distribution of vasoactive
intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity was found in dermal
tissue only at the earliest stage of antler development. Nerve fibres
immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y, C-flanking peptide of neuropeptide
Y and tyrosine hydroxylase, all present in postganglionic sympathetic
nerves, were not observed at any stage of antler growth. Nerves
expressing immunoreactivity for any of the neural markers or peptides
employed could not be found in cartilage, osteoid or bone. These
results show that antlers are innervated mainly by sensory nerves
and that nerves can attain the exceptionally high growth rates found
in regenerating antler.
H., S. H. Yoon, et al. 1990. Study for new hapatotropic agent
from natural resources. I. Effect of antler and old antler on liver
injury induced by benzopyrene in rats. Proc. Japanese Soc. Food
& Nutrition 23: 9.
S. H. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the enterochromaffin
cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa of rats exposed to starvation,
heat, cold and electric shock. J. Catholic Medical College 19: 157-164.
M., X-W Yang, S. Kaneko, Y. Nomura & T. Namba. 1989. Constituents
of the pilose antler of Cervus nippon. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43: 173-176.
Huang SL, Kakiuchi N, Hattori M, Namba T Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1991
Feb;39(2):384-387 A new monitoring system of cultured myocardial
cell motion: effect of pilose antler extract and cardioactive agents
on spontaneous beating of myocardial cell sheets. Research Institute
for Wakan-yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama Medical
and Pharmaceutical University.
Effects of various cardioactive
agents and a water extract of the pilose antler of Cervus nippon
var. mantchuricus on periodic beating of cultured myocardial cell
sheets were examined by using an image analyzing system. Norepinephrine
increased the beating rate and the beating amplitude, whereas digoxin
and forskolin enlarged only the beating amplitude. Verapamil and
propranolol decreased both the beating rate and the beating amplitude.
The water extract of the pilose antler showed no remarkable effects
in a standard medium (2.1 mM Ca2+). However, it significantly increased
the beating amplitude when the beating was suppressed by replacement
with a low calcium medium (0.5 mM Ca2+). A similar effect was found
for 70% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the extract.
Ivankina NF, Isay SV, Busarova NG, Mischenko Tya Comp Biochem Physiol [B]
1993 Sep;106(1):159-162 Prostaglandin-like activity, fatty acid
and phospholipid composition of sika deer (Cervus nippon) antlers
at different growth stages. State Medical Institute, Blagoveschensk,
1. The alteration of
lipid composition has been shown to take place at different stages
of antler growth. 2. The greatest amounts of phospholipids and polyunsaturated
fatty acids have been found during the most intense soft antler
growth period. 3. The bioregulators of lipid origin which are prostaglandins
of A, B, E and F groups have been found at the same stage.
D. Concern raised about performance enhancing drugs in the US. BMJ
I 998;3 17:702 (12 September).
J.R., and J. Sieper. Oral collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1998; 41(2): 191-194.
B. Red Deer Antler Velvet: Growth Hormone Connection, and More!
Health Sciences Institute. 1998; 2(8): 1-2.
W. S. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the mesenteric mast
cells of rates exposed to heat, cold or electric shock. J. Cathol.
Med. College 19: 1-9.
T. and M. Croucher. 1987. The Healing Arts: Exploring the Medical
Ways of the World. New York, Summit Books.
Y. E., D. K. Lim, et al. 1977. Biochemical studies on antler
(Cervus nippon taiouanus) V: A study of glycolipids and phosholipids
of antler velvet layer and pantocrin. Korean Biochem. J. 10: 153-164.
K. W. and S. W. Park. 1982. A study of the hemopoietic action of
deer horn extract. Korean Biochem. J. 15: 151-157.
Y. E. and K. J. Kim. 1983. Biochemical studies on antler (Cervus
nippon taiouanus). VI. Comparative study on the effect of lipid
soluble fractions of antler spponge and velvet layers and pantocrin
on the aldolase activity in the rat spinal nerves. Yakhak Hoeji
K. B. and S. I. Lee. 1985. Effects of several kinds of antler upon
endocrine functions in rats. Kyung Hee Univ Med. J. ?8: 91-110.
Ko KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW, Kong YC, Fennessy P, Belew MC, Porath J Gen
Comp Endocrinol 1986 Sep;63(3):431-440 Epidermal growth factor from
deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler.
Epidermal growth factor
(EGF)-like activity was isolated for the first time from the submaxillary
gland (SMG) and the velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus) by
a combination of Sephadex gel or DEAE-Sephacel and IMAC columns
in succession. The semipurified cervine EGF-like activity (cEGF),
with specific activity of 4.7 ng/micrograms protein from the velvet
tissues, can generate a completely parallel competitive binding
curve against mouse EGF in both radioreceptor assay (RRA) and radioimmunoassay
(RIA). Mitogenic activity of EGF from both tissues was demonstrated
by stimulating the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in two different
cell lines of fibroblast culture in a dose-dependent manner. The
velvet layer may be the site of EGF synthesis outside the SMG.
Y., K. Ko, et al. 1987. Epidermal growth factor of the cervine
velvet antler. Acta. Zool. Sin., 33: 301-308:
Lewis LK, Barrell GK Steroids 1994 Aug;59(8):490-492 Regional distribution
of estradiol receptors in growing antlers. Animal and Veterinary
Sciences Group, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
This study of estrogen
receptors (ER) was carried out to confirm their presence and to
determine their localisation in antler bones. Partially grown antlers
were amputated from red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags, the skin removed,
and samples taken of periosteum, cartilaginous tissue including
perichondrium, and bone. Capacity and binding of free ER in the
samples were calculated by Scatchard analysis of data obtained from
a radioreceptor assay which utilised [3H]estradiol as tracer. High
affinity ER (ka 1.3-3.4 x 10(10)/M) were detected in all tissues
sampled with the exception of bone. Receptor capacity ranged from
12-74 fmol/mg protein, ranking the tissues for capacity in the following
descending order: periosteum, cartilage, calcified cartilage. These
results demonstrate the presence of ER in growing antlers and indicate
regional localization of the receptors within these structures.
The absence of ER in bone tissue within the antler suggests that
the effect of estradiol on stimulation of mineralization in this
tissue is indirect and must occur via its binding to the non-calcified
tissues of antlers, e.g., periosteum, perichondrium, and cartilage.
Li C, Waldrup KA, Corson ID, Littlejohn RP, Suttie JM J Exp Zool 1995
Aug 1;272(5):345-355 Histogenesis of antlerogenic tissues cultivated
in diffusion chambers in vivo in red deer (Cervus elaphus). AgResearch,
Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel, New Zealand.
In a previous study
we showed that formation of deer pedicle and first antler proceeded
through four ossification pattern change stages: intramembranous,
transition, pedicle endochondral, and antler endochondral. In the
present study antlerogenic tissues (antlerogenic periosteum, apical
periosteum/perichondrium, and apical perichondrial of pedicle and
antler) taken from four developmental stages were cultivated in
diffusion chambers in vivo as autografts for 42-68 days. The results
showed that all the cultivated tissues without exception formed
trabecular bone de novo, irrespective of whether they were forming
osseous, osseocartilaginous, or cartilaginous tissue at the time
of initial implant surgery; in two cases in the apical perichondria
from antler group, avascularized cartilage also formed. Therefore,
the antlerogenic cells, like the progenitor cells of somatic secondary
type cartilage, have a tendency to differentiate into osteoblasts
and then form trabecular bone. Consequently, the differentiation
pathway whereby antlerogenic cells change from forming osteoblasts
to forming chondroblasts during pedicle formation is caused by extrinsic
factors. Both oxygen tension and mechanical pressure are postulated
to be the factors that cause this alteration of the differentiation
Marchenko LI, Kats MA Vrach Delo 1975 Aug;8:135-136 Anaphylactic shock as
a response to subcutaneous administration of pantocrine. Article
Miller SC, Bowman BM, Jee WS Bone 1995 Oct;17(4 Suppl):117S-123S Available
animal models of osteopenia--small and large. Division of Radiobiology,
School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA.
Animal models of osteopenia
are reviewed. Endocrine excess or deficiency conditions include
ovariectomy, orchidectomy, glucocorticoid excess and other endocrine
states. Seasonal and reproductive cycles are usually transient and
include pregnancy and lactation, egg-laying, antler formation and
hibernation. Dietary conditions include calcium deficiencies, phosphate
excess and vitamin C and D deficiencies. Mechanical usage effects
include skeletal underloading models. Aging is also associated with
osteopenia in many species.
P; R. Manopulo; M. Galati; L. Boccanera; G. Saponati; L. Bocchi.
Comparison of the antiinflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate
and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol
1996; 23:1 385-I 391.
P. D., Sykes, A.R., Barrell, G.K. 1988. Changes in blood content
and histology during growth of antlers in red deer, Cervus elaphus,
and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels. J. Anat. 158:
Narimanov AA, Kuznetsova SM, Miakisheva SN Radiobiologiia 1990 Mar;30(2):170-174
The modifying action of the Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica)
and pantocrine in radiation lesions. [Article in Russian]
A study was made of
the effect of Sophora japonica and pantocrine on irradiated (2.5
Gy) human lymphoblastoid cells. The radioprotective effect was manifested
with the preparations injected separately after irradiation. The
highest radioprotective effect was produced by the mixture of the
preparations, the injection 15 min after irradiation being more
effective than preinjection. The protective effect of the agents
was studied on mongrel mice after the administration thereof for
the purposes of protection protection-and-treatment and treatment.
Sophora japonica and pantocrine were shown to increase the survival
rate of lethally exposed mice (LD90/30) when administered in a combination
5-15 min before irradiation and when used for the purposes of protection--and--treatment:
53.3% and 50% of animals, respectively, survived by day 30 following
irradiation. DMF was 1.25.
L.;A. Conte; L. Giovannini; P Lualdi; G. Ronca. Metabolic fate of
exogenous chondroitin sulfate in the experimental animal. Arzneim-Forsch
Drug Res I 990; 40 (l):319-323.
Price JS, Oyajobi BO, Nalin AM, Frazer A, Russell RG, Sandell LJ Dev Dyn
1996 Mar;205(3):332-347 Chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler
tip in red deer: expression of collagen types I, IIA, IIB, and X
demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry.
Department of Human Metabolism and Clinical Biochemistry, University
of Sheffield Medical School, U.K.
The annual regrowth
of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration
occurring in an adult animal. Growth is initiated at the distal
antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in some
respects. However, there is some debate as to whether this process
represents "true" endochondral ossification. As part of the characterization
of the developmental process in pre-osseus antler tissue, we have
studied, by in situ hybridization, the spatial expression of mRNAs
for types I, II, and X collagen. Viewed in a coronal plane, type
I procollagen mRNA was observed in skin, the fibrous perichondrium,
and the densely cellular area immediately adjacent to the perichondrium.
Below this area, as cells began to assume a columnar arrangement
and coincident with the appearance of a vasculature and synthesis
of a cartilaginous matrix, transcripts for types I, IIA, IIB procollagen
and X collagen were detected. Further down in the cartilage zone,
the pattern of type I procollagen mRNA expression was altered. Here,
the signal was detected only in a morphologically distinct subpopulation
of small, flattened cells within the intercellular matrix at the
periphery of the columns of chondrocytes. The alternative splice
form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA), characteristic of chondroprogenitor
cells (Sandell et al.  J. Cell Biol. 114:1307-1319),
was expressed by a subset of cells in the upper region of the columns,
indicating that this zone contains a population of prechondrocytic
cells. Positive hybridization to type IIA was most abundant in these
cells. In contrast, transcripts for the other procollagen splice
form (IIB) and type X collagen were expressed by chondrocytes throughout
the whole of the cartilage region studied. The translation and export
of type II collagen and type X collagen were confirmed by detecting
specific immunoreactivity for each. The spatial distribution of
immunoreactivity for collagen types II and X was consistent with
that of corresponding mRNAs. These data demonstrate for the first
time the distinct pattern of expression of genes for major cartilage
matrix macromolecules, the expression of the differentially spliced
form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA), and specifically the co-localization
of types II and X collagen in the developing antler tip. Taken together,
they strongly indicate that antler growth involves an endochondral
Ramirez V, Brown RD Comp Biochem Physiol A 1988;89(2):279-281 A technique
for the in vitro incubation of deer antler tissue. Caesar Kleberg
Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&I University, Kingsville
1. A procedure for the
in vitro incubation of velvet deer antler tissue was developed.
Biopsy samples were collected in June with a trephine from 2 adult
white-tailed deer and incubated in modified BGJb medium up to 48
hr. Calcium (Ca) and hydroxyproline (OH-proline) concentrations
in the tissue were determined.
2. A significant increase
(P less than 0.05) in Ca was exhibited at 4 and 8 hr of incubation,
and, after replenishment of media, at 48 hr.
3. Hydroxyproline concentrations
continued to rise throughout the duration of the incubation period
and were significantly higher than controls (P less than 0.05) at
16, 24, and 48 hr. 4. Results suggest antler tissue can be incubated
in vitro with the protocol described, although length of incubation
may vary with parameter measured.
Rucklidge GJ, Milne G, Bos KJ, Farquharson C, Robins SP Comp Biochem Physiol
B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Oct;118(2):303-308 Deer antler does not
represent a typical endochondral growth system: immunoidentification
of collagen type X but little collagen type II in growing antler
tissue. Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, U.K. email@example.com
The collagen isotypes
present at early (6 week) and late (5 month) stages of growing deer
antler were isolated and identified. Pepsin-digested collagens were
separated by differential salt fractionation, SDS-PAGE and Western
blotting and subsequently identified by immunostaining. Cyanogen
bromide digestion of antler tissue was used to establish a collagen
type-specific pattern of peptides, and these were also identified
by immunoblotting. Collagen type I was found to be the major collagen
in both early- and late-stage antler. Collagen type II was present
in the young antler in small amounts but was not confined to the
soft "cartilaginous" tip of the antler. Collagen type XI was found
in the pepsin digest of the young antler, but collagen type IX was
not present at either stage of antler growth. Collagen type X was
found in the young antler in all fractions studied. Microscopic
study showed that the deer antler did not possess a discrete growth
plate as found in endochondral bone growth. Unequivocal immunolocalization
of the different collagen types in the antler were unsuccessful.
These results show that, despite the presence in the antler of many
cartilage collagens, growth does not occur through a simple endochondral
Sadighi M, Haines SR, Skottner A, Harris AJ, Suttie JM J Endocrinol 1994
Dec;143(3):461-469 AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel,
New Zealand Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and
IGF-II on the growth of antler cells in vitro.
The effects of insulin-like
growth factors -I and -II (IGF-I and -II) on the growth of undifferentiated
(fibroblast zone) cells from the growing tip of red deer velvet
antlers and from cells 1.5 cm distal to the growing tip (cartilage
zone) were investigated in primary cell culture. The addition of
IGF-I or IGF-II to the medium of cultures preincubated in serum-free
medium for 24 h increased the rate of [3H]thymidine uptake in a
dose-dependent manner in both cell types, with maximal stimulation
occurring when 1 nM-30 nM was added. The addition of IGF-II to the
incubation medium containing IGF-I did not cause a further increase
in [3H]thymidine uptake in either cell type over and above each
growth factor alone, indicating that there were unlikely to be synergistic
effects of IGF-II on the mitogenicity of IGF-I. Binding studies
were carried out using 3 x 10(5) fibroblast zone cells and cartilage
zone cells after they had been incubated in serum-free medium for
24 h. 125I-Labelled IGF-I (10(-9) M) in a final volume of 200 microliters
was added to each culture and incubation carried out at 4 degrees
C for a further hour. 125I-Labelled IGF-I bound specifically to
both fibroblasts and cartilage zone cells; binding was displaced
by both unlabelled IGF-I and by IGF-I antibody.
Sempere AJ, Grimberg R, Silve C, Tau C, Garabedian M Endocrinology 1989
Nov;125(5):2312-2319 Evidence for extrarenal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin
during physiological bone growth: in vivo and in vitro production
by deer antler cells. Centre d'Etudes Biologiques des Animaux Sauvages
(CNRS), Beauvoir-sur-Niort, France.
The development of deer
antler follows a pattern similar to that described for mammalian
endochondral ossification and has been proposed as a suitable model
for studies of bone growth. We investigated seasonal changes in
the plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D]
and calcium and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in relation
to the antler cycle during 1 yr in 4 captive roe deer and measured
these biological parameters in 27 wild roe deer during their antler
cycle. A significant elevation of 1,25-(OH)2D in peripheral plasma,
with no parallel increase in the concentration of its precursor
25-hydroxyvitamin D, was observed to accompany the rapid growth
phase of the antler cycle in captive (P less than 0.001) and wild
(P less than 0.025) deer. During the same phase there was a gradient
in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D in antler vs. jugular blood (P less than
0.01). In addition, velvet cells in culture proved to have the ability
to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 into a more polar derivative, which
was indistinguishable from true 1,25-(OH)2D3 with regard to its
chromatographic properties, its UV absorbance at 254 nm, and its
ability to bind to the 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors present in chick intestinal
cytosol. These in vivo and in vitro results strongly suggest that
local production of 1,25-(OH)2D by the antler cells does occur in
vivo and may contribute to the increase in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D during
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in man.Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res; 43(l I):1109-1113.
J. S., Sunwoo, H. H. and Hudson, R. J. 1995a. Cell growth promoting
factors in water-soluble fraction of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus)
antler. page 111, 1st International Conference on East-West Perspectives
on Functional Foods, Singapore, September, 26-29, 1995.
J. S., Sunwoo, H. H., Hudson R. J. and Kurylo, S. L. 1995b. Chemical
and pharmacological characterization of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus)
antler extracts. page 68, 3rd World congress of medicinal acupuncture
and natural medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 10-12-1995.
H. H. Nakano, T. Hudson, R. J. and Sim, J. S. 1995. Chemical composition
of antlers from wapiti (Cervus elaphus). J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:
H. H. 1998. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans in growing
antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Chapter 8 In Chemical characterization
of growing antlers of Wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Ph. D. thesis, University
H. H., Nakano, T. and Sim, J. S. 1997. Effect of water soluble extract
from antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) on the growth of fibroblasts.
Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77:343-345.
H. H. and Sim, J. S. 1996. Chemical and pharmacological characterization
of Canadian elk (Cervus eoaphus) antler extracts. 96–World Federation
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– July 4, 1996, Seoul Korea, WFKSEA Prodeedings 96: 706-713.
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elaphus scoticus) stags. J. Endocrinol. 121: 351-360.
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J. M., I. D. Corson, et al. 1991. Insulin-like growth factor
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J. M., Fennessy, P. F., Haines, S. R., Sadighi, M., Kerr, D.R. and
Issacs, C. 1994. The New Zealand velvet antler industry: Background
and research findings. International symposium on Cervi Parvum Cornu.
KSP Proceedings. Oct. &, 1994. Seoul, Korea, pp 86-135.
K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash
injury. II. Evaluation of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy.
Folia Pharmacol. Japon. 68: 473-488. [Article in Japanese]
K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash
injury. III. Changes in enzyme activiation of cervicxal cords and
effect of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy. Folia Pharmacol
Japon. 68: 489-493.
D.E.; RA. Dynesius-Trentham; F.J. Orav; et al. 1993, Effects of
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Science 261:1 727-1730.
B. 1996, Advances in research of chemistry, pharmacology and clinical
application of pilose antler. Proceedings of the 1996 International
Symposium on Deer Science and Deer Products. I4-31.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Effects of repeated administration
of deer antler extract on biochemical changes related to aging in
senescence-accelerated mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Stimulating effect of deer
antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated mice
in vivo. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Inhibition of liquid peroxidation
bu deer antler (Rokujo) extract in vivo and in vitro. J. Med. Pharm.
Soc. for WAKAN-Yaku 5: 123-128.
Wang BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Yang XW, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Namba T, Nomura
Y Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988 Jul;36(7):2593-2598 Stimulating effect
of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated
mice in vivo.
Wang BX, Zhou QL Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1991;26(9):714-720 Advances in the
chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on pilose antler.
[Article in Chinese]
Wang BX, Liu AJ, Cheng XJ, Wang QG, Wei GR, Cui JC Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao
1985 May;20(5):321-325 Anti-ulcer action of the polysaccharides
isolated from pilose antler. [Article in Chinese]
Wang BX, Chen XG, Xu HB, Zhang W, Zhang J Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(9):652-657
Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler (PASPA) on RNA
polymerase activities in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department
of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun.
The incorporations of
[3H] leucine into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse liver
were increased when PASPA was given to mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg
for 4 successive days. The RNA polymerase activity, especially the
RNA polymerase II activity in the solubilized liver nuclear fraction
of PASPA-treated mice was also increased. In vitro experiment demonstrated
that PASPA increased the RNA polymerase activity significantly in
mouse liver nuclei at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. These results
suggest that the enhancement of RNA polymerase activities, particularly
RNA polymerase II activity, induced by PASPA treatment is responsible
for the increase in synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver
Wang BX, Chen XG, Zhang W Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(5):321-325 Influence
of the active compounds isolated from pilose antler on syntheses
of protein and RNA in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department
of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia
Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
The polyamines of pilose
antler (PASPA) consist of putrescine (PU, 70.9%), spermidine (SPD,
26.3%) and spermine (SP, 2.8%). The incorporations of [3H] leucine
into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse liver tissue were
increased when PASPA was given orally to mice at the dose of 30
mg/kg for 4 successive days. The incorporations of [3H] leucine
into liver protein and [3H] uridine into the cytosolic and nuclear
RNA were also increased by treatment with PU (21 mg/kg). In addition,
the RNA polymerase activity in the solubilized liver nuclear fraction
of PU (21 mg/kg)-treated mice was increased. SPD only promoted the
synthesis of protein in mouse liver tissue at the dose of 8 mg/kg.
However, SP showed no effect on the synthesis of protein and RNA
polymerase activity under the used dose (1 mg/kg). The results suggest
that PASPA is the main active substance responsible for the promotion
of the synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver.
N., and M.E. Nimni. 1998. Cartilage collagens. In: Collagen, Volume
I. M.E. Nimmi, ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 225-24 I.
P. 1989. The effect of deer horn on the experimental anemia of rabbits.
Journal Pharmaochemical Society Korea. 8: 6-11.
A. M. and Y. L. Dubryakov 1974. A guide for the preparation and
storage of uncalcified male antlers as a medicinal raw material.
In Reindeer antlers, Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Far East Science
Zhao QC, Kiyohara H, Nagai T, Yamada H Carbohydr Res 1992 Jun 16;230(2):361-372
Structure of the complement-activating proteoglycan from the pilose
antler of Cervus nippon Temminck. Oriental Medicine Research Center,
Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
polysaccharide, DWA-2, isolated from an unossified pilose antler
of C. nippon Temminck by digestion with pronase, gel filtration,
and affinity chromatography, consisted mainly of GalNAc, GlcA, IdoA,
and sulfate in the molar ratios 1.0:0.6:0.3:0.8, and small proportions
of Man, Gal, GlcNAc, and protein (4.5%). Methylation analysis, NMR
spectroscopy, and degradation with enzymes indicated that DWA-2
contained chondroitin sulfate A-, B-, and C-like moieties. DWA-2
showed potent anti-complementary activity, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis
indicated that it cleaved complement C3 in the absence of Ca2+ ion.
Digestion of DWA-2 with chondroitinase ABC or ACI reduced the anti-complementary
activity to a low level, but digestion with chondroitinase B reduced
the activity by approximately 40% and the enzyme-resistant fraction
still showed a significant activity.
Zhao D, Zhang X, Zhou F, Wei Z, Tian H Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990
Jan;15(1):37-39 Relation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic
characteristics of pilose antler and its traditional quality grade.
[Article in Chinese] Beijing Institute for Drug Control.
The relationship between
FTIR characteristics of Pilose Antler and its traditional quality
grade was studied and a rule governing its quality value "Z" was
found. We have thus advanced a new objective target for preparing
Pilose Antler tablets and powder.
Zhang ZQ, Zhang Y, Wang BX, Zhou HO, Wang Y, Zhang H Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao
1992;27(5):321-324 Purification and partial characterization of
anti-inflammatory peptide from pilose antler of Cervus nippon Temminck.
Department of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine
and Materia Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
compound was purified and isolated from pilose antler of Cervus
nippon Temminck by dialysis, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography
techniques. HPLC and N-terminal amion acid analysis identified the
compound as a homogeneous peptide. The peptide is composed of 68
amino acids and its molecular weight as determined by amino analysis,
is about 7200.
Zhiliaev EV, Dobriakov IuI Klin Med (Mosk) 1995;73(5):77-78 Experience in
the use of rantarine in the treatment of internal diseases. [Article
Zioupos P, Wang XT, Currey JD J Biomech 1996 Aug;29(8):989-1002 Experimental
and theoretical quantification of the development of damage infatigue
tests of bone and antler. Department of Biology, University of York,
This study concerns
the development of damage (as measured by a reduction in elastic
modulus) in two kinds of bones differing considerably in their degrees
of mineralisation: laminar bone from bovine femur and osteonal bone
from red deer antler. Antler bone is much tougher than 'ordinary'
bone and its failure properties have been investigated in: (i) monotonic
tensile tests and (ii) creep rupture experiments. Tensile fatigue
is another way of examining how damage develops in bone. The development
of damage in the present fatigue tests was non-linear with the cycle
number, the degree of non-linearity was dependent on the level of
stress and followed a clearly different course for bone and antler.
Antler was a more damage-tolerant material, being able to achieve
a reduction in the final modulus of elasticity, just prior to failure,
three times greater than ‘ordinary’ bone. The evolution of damage
is quantified by an empirical and a graphical method and by the
use of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) expressions. The CDM method
shows important conditions, found in antler, but not in bone, that
seen necessary for achieving stable fractures and consequently producing
very tough materials.