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Deer Velvet Antler: A Traditional Asian Medicine For Over 1000 Years




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Deer Velvet Antler

Research And References

Research is being carried out in the following areas:

Blood Building Effects: Deer velvet antler has been shown to increase the production of red blood cells (to a higher degree.) and white blood cells (to a lower degree.) These facts are linked with velvet antler's ability to increase oxygen uptake to the brain, liver and kidneys.

Reduction Of Blood Pressure: Blood pressure reduction is due to velvet antler's ability to increase dilation of the peripheral blood vessel.

Protection Against Stress: Deer velvet antler helps the body to maintain homeostasis against heat, cold, and electric shock. This has been linked to velvet antler's ability to decrease mast cell degranulation

Stimulation Of Growth: Deer velvet antler is an extremely rich, fast growing tissue that contains many growth elements. Elk can grow up to 50 pounds of new bone in approximately two month. Due to its fast rate of growth, deer velvet antler is being looked at as a model for studies on osteoporosis, as a possible graft for healing fractures, and as a model for cancer studies.

Aging Retardation: Recent studies in Japan show that deer velvet antler reduced signs normally associated with senility.

Recovery From Traumatic Injury: Deer velvet antler as an extremely fast growing tissue, is comprised of many cell types. These include fibroblasts, chondroblassts, and chondrocytes, and others. All of these are required for healthy growing bones and tissue. Deer velvet antler is high in calcium and phosphates which aid in the healing of bones. Research has shown that deer velvet antler helps to heal neural (nerve) tissue. This mechanism can be explained by velvet antler's ability to enhance glycosis to nerve tissue. Deer velvet antler's relationship to recovery from traumatic injury could possibly explain its effectiveness against arthritis.


The first documented evidence of the use of deer velvet antler as a health tonic was found on a silk scroll recovered from a tomb in Hunan China. The scroll is believed to be around 2,000 years old and suggests several significant medical treatments and prescriptions for 52 different diseases. Since three deer carcasses were found in the same tomb, some believe this indicates that deer farming was already practiced during the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. to 200 A.D.) for meat and possibly also for medicine. Some 200 years later, further reference to the use of deer parts and deer velvet antler was made in a book called "Shan Nung Bon Cho Kynug". An English translation of an excerpt from the book reveals some of the health problems deer velvet antler and products were used to overcome 1800 years ago.

Deer Velvet Antler Composition

Tests show that deer velvet antler is almost half amino acids, including trytophane, lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidiine, arginine, proline, hydroxy proline aspartic acid, serine, glutamic acid, glyciine, alanine, cysteine, methionine, and tryosine.The cartilage components which make up the rest of the antler are: chondroycytes, chondroblasts, glucosamine, glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulfate A, anti-inflammantory prostaglandins.

The effects of deer antler velvet extract or powder supplementation on aerobic power, erythropoiesis, and muscular strength and endurance characteristics.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):251-65.

To determine the effects of deer antler velvet on maximal aerobic performance and the trainability of muscular strength and endurance, 38 active males were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either deer antler velvet extract (n = 12), powder (n = 13), or placebo groups (n = 13). Subjects were tested prior to beginning supplementation and a 10-week strength program, and immediately post-training. All subjects were measured for circulating levels of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor, erythropoietin, red cell mass, plasma volume, and total blood volume. Additionally, muscular strength, endurance, and VO2max were determined. All groups improved 6 RM strength equivalently, but there was a greater increase in isokinetic knee extensor strength and endurance in the powder compared to placebo group. There were no endocrine, red cell mass or VO2max changes in any group. These findings do not support an erythropoetic or aerobic ergogenic effect of deer antler velvet. Further, the inconsistent findings regarding the effects of deer antler velvet powder supplementation on the development of strength suggests that further work is required to test the robustness of the observation that this supplement enhances the strength training response and to ensure this observation is not a type I error.

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Scientific References
for Deer Velvet Antler Research

Adams, J. L. 1979. Innervation and blood supply of the antler pedicle of the Red deer. N Z Vet J. 27: 200-201.
Archer, R. H., and P J. Palfreyman. 1983. Properties of New Zealand Deer Velvet, Part I: Search of the Literature Vol I.Massey University and Wrightson NMA Ltd.
Bae, D. S. 1977. Study on the effect of antler on growth of animals. III. Effect of antler on the ability of spermatogenesis of cocks fertilization. Korean J Anim Sci 19: 407-412.
Banks, W. J. and J. W. Newberry. 1981 Light microscope studies of the ossification proccess in developing antlers. In Antler Development in Cervidae. ed. R. D. Boone. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute. Kingsville Texas. pp 231-260.
Barnett, M.L.; D. Gombitchi; D.E. Trentham. A pilot trial of oral type II collagen in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 1996; 39 (4): 623-628.
Bubenik, G. A., Bubenik, A.B. 1986. Phylogeny and ontogeny of antlers and neuro-endocrine regulation of the antler cycle - a review. Saeugetierk. Mitt. 33(2/3): 97-123.
Bubenik GA, Schams D, White RJ, Rowell J, Blake J, Bartos L Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Feb;116(2):269-277 Seasonal levels of reproductive hormones and their relationship to the antler cycle of male and female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus). Department of Zoology, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Seasonal levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T), estradiol, progesterone (P), and prolactin (PRL) were determined in the plasma of five adult bulls, and five barren and four pregnant cows of Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), which were sampled every 3 weeks for 54 weeks. The male reproductive axis was sequentially activated; LH peaked in May-June (2 ng/ml), FSH in June (51 ng/ml), and T in September (11.8 ng/ml). LH levels in females reached a maximum in both groups at the end of August (the beginning of the rut). Seasonal variation in FSH was minimal in pregnant cows, but exhibited one elevation (41 ng/ml) in barren ones in November. T levels in cows remained at barely detectable levels. The decrease of T values observed in both groups in December and March was not significant. PRL peaked in May in cows (135 ng/ml pregnant, 140 ng/ml non-pregnant) and in June in bulls (92 ng/ml). Estradiol was highest in bulls in the rut (August), in non-pregnant cows in January and in pregnant cows in April, shortly before parturition. P levels in the pregnant cows rose from September and peaked (9 ng/ml) shortly before parturition in April. In the non-pregnant females P values increased and decreased several times before peaking (5 ng/ml) in March. In the males, the variation of T and estradiol levels correlated relatively well with the antler cycle but in the females the variation of neither estradiol, progesterone nor T appeared to be related to mineralization or casting of antlers.
Breckhman, J. T., Y. L Dubryakov and A. L. Taneyeva. 1969. The biological activity of the antlers of deer and other deer species. Ivestio Sibirskogo Ordelemia Akalemi Nank SISR. Biological Series No. 10 (2):112-115
Breckhman, J. T. 1980. Man and biologically active substances: The effects of drugs, diet and pollution on health. Translated by J. H. Appleby. Pargamon Press, Oxford.
Chen X, Jia Y, Wang B Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1992 Feb;17(2):107-110 Inhibitory effects of the extract of pilose antler on monoamine oxidase in aged mice. [Article in Chinese] Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica, Jilin Province, Changchun.
It was demonstrated that the water extract of Pilose Antler (WEPA) showed a higher inhibitory effect on MAO-B activities in the liver and brain tissues of aged mice, but nearly no effect on NAO-A. WEPA could significantly increase the contents of 5-HT, NE and DA in the brain tissues of aged mice. In vitro experiments revealed that the inhibition of WEPA on MAO-B was competitive, but on MAO-A was of mixed-type.
Conte, A.; M. de Bernardi; L. Palmieri; P Lualdi; G. Mautone; G. Ronca. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in man. Arzneim-Forsch./Drug Res 1991; 41(11): 76~77 I.
Elliott JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Bass JJ, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC, Breier BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM Endocrinology 1992 May;130(5):2513-2520 Presence of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors and absence of growth hormone receptors in the antler tip. Ruakura Agricultural Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Red deer antler tips in the growing phase were removed 60 days after the recommencement of growth for autoradiographical studies and RRAs. Sections were incubated with radiolabeled GH or insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), with or without excess competing unlabeled hormones, and were analyzed autoradiographically. There was negligible binding of [125I]GH in any histological zone of antler sections. [125I]IGF-I showed highest specific binding in the chondroblast zone to a receptor demonstrating binding characteristics of the type 1 IGF receptor. The lowest specific binding of [125I]IGF-I was to prechondroblasts. RRAs on antler microsomal membrane preparations RRAs on antler microsomal membrane preparations confirmed the absence of GH receptors and the presence of type 1 IGF receptors found by autoradiography. These findings suggest that IGF-I may act in an endocrine manner in antler growth through a receptor resembling the type 1 IGF receptor. The presence of type 1 receptors in the chondroblast zone implicates IGF-I involvement in cartilage formation through matrixogenesis. There is no support for IGF-I having a major role in mitosis in the antler.
Elliott JL, Oldham JM, Ambler GR, Molan PC, Spencer GS, Hodgkinson SC, Breier BH, Gluckman PD, Suttie JM, Bass JJ J Endocrinol 1993 Aug;138(2):233-242 Receptors for insulin-like growth factor-II in the growing tip of the deer antler. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.
Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) binding in the growing tip of the deer antler was examined using autoradiographical studies, radioreceptor assays and affinity cross-linking studies. Antler tips from red deer stags were removed 60 days after the commencement of growth, and cryogenically cut into sections. Sections were incubated with radiolabelled IGF-II, with or without an excess of competing unlabelled IGF-II and analysed autoradiographically. Radiolabelled IGF-II showed high specific binding in the reserve mesenchyme and perichondrium zones, which are tissues undergoing rapid differentiation and cell division in the antler. Binding to all other structural zones was low and significantly (P < 0.001) less than binding to the reserve mesenchyme/perichondrium zones. Radioreceptor assays on antler microsomal membrane preparations revealed that the IGF-II binding was to a relatively homogeneous receptor population (Kd = 1.3 x 10(-10) mol/l) with characteristics that were not entirely consistent with those normally attributed to the type 2 IGF receptor. Tracer binding was partly displaceable by IGF-I and insulin at concentrations above 10 nmol/l. However, affinity cross-linking studies revealed a single band migrating at 220 kDa under non-reducing conditions, indicative of the type 2 IGF receptor. These results indicate that, in antler tip tissues, IGF-II binds to sites which have different binding patterns and properties from receptors binding IGF-I. This may have functional significance as it appears that, whilst IGF-I has a role in matrix development of cartilage, IGF-II may have a role in the most rapidly differentiating and proliferating tissues of the antler.
Fennessy, P. F. and J. M. Suttie. 1985. Antler growth: Nutritional and endocrine factors. In: Biology of Deer Production. Wellington, Royal Soc. NZ.
Fennessy, P F 1991 Velvet antler: the product and pharmacology. Proc. Deer Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch of the NZ Vet Assoc). 8 169-180
Feng JQ, Chen D, Esparza J, Harris MA, Mundy GR, Harris SE Biochim Biophys Acta 1995 Aug 22;1263(2):163-168 Deer antler tissue contains two types of bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA transcripts. University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284-7877, USA.
Previously we isolated a bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) cDNA from human prostate cancer cells and found that the 5' noncoding exon 1 of this BMP-4 cDNA was different from that of human bone cell BMP-4 cDNA. Recently we identified two alternate exon 1s, 1A and 1B, for BMP-4 gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays from fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts. In order to further examine alternate exon 1 usage in the BMP-4 gene, we screened deer antler tissue cDNA library. We isolated two types of cDNA clones encoding BMP-4 from this deer antler cDNA library. Sequencing of these clones have revealed a single open reading frame encoding a 408 amino acid protein. Comparison of 5' noncoding exon 1 portion of these cDNA sequences with those of human bone and prostate BMP-4 cDNA sequences and mouse BMP-4 genomic DNA sequence demonstrated that deer antler tissue expresses both exon 1A and 1B containing BMP-4 mRNA transcripts. This suggests that BMP-4 gene may contain alternate promoters or alternate splicing sites in deer antler tissue.
Feng JQ, Chen D, Ghosh-Choudhury N, Esparza J, Mundy GR, Harris SE Biochim Biophys Acta 1997 Jan 3;1350(1):47-52 Bone morphogenetic protein 2 transcripts in rapidly developing deer antler tissue contain an extended 5' non-coding region arising from a distal promoter. Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 78284, USA.
To understand the regulation of the BMP-2 gene expression, we recently isolated the BMP-2 gene from a mouse genomic library and characterized the exon-intron structure and promoter. RNase protection assay using poly (A)+ RNA of mouseosteoblasts demonstrates that two regions in BMP-2 gene are protected by antisense mouse BMP-2 RNA probes. These results demonstrate that BMP-2 gene utilizes two alternative promoters, a distal and a proximal promoter. In the present study we demonstrate that BMP-2 mRNA from rapidly growing deer antler tissue has an extended 5' non-coding region compared with the human and rat BMP-2 mRNA. The extended 5' non-coding region in the deer mRNA represents transcripts from the upstream distal promoter. This is the first evidence of a natural BMP-2 mRNA from a bone-forming tissue that most likely initiated from the distal transcription start site.
Fisher, B.D.; M. Gilpin; D. Wiles. Strength training parameters in Edmonton police recruits following supplementation with elk velvet antler (EVA). University of Alberta. I 998.
Fulder, S. 1980a. The hammer and the pesstle. New Scientist. 87 (1209): 120-123
Fulder, S. 1980b. The drug that builds Russians. New Scientist 87 (1215): 516-519.
Garcia RL, Sadighi M, Francis SM, Suttie JM, Fleming JS J Mol Endocrinol 1997 Oct;19(2):173-182 Expression of neurotrophin-3 in the growing velvet antler of the red deer Cervus elaphus. Department of Physiology and Centre for Gene Research, Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Antlers are organs of bone which regenerate each year from the heads of male deer. In addition to bone, support tissues such as nerves also regenerate. Nerves must grow at up to 1 cm/day. The control of this rapid growth of nerves is unknown. We examined the relative expression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) mRNA in the different tissues of the growing antler tip and along the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft of the red deer Cervus elaphus, using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Expression in the tip was found to be highest in the epidermal/dermal layer and lowest in the cartilaginous layer in all developmental stages examined. These data correlate well with the density and pattern of innervation of these tissues. Along the epidermal/dermal layer of the antler shaft, expression was highest in the segments subjacent to the tip and lowest near the base, arguing for differences in the temporal expression of NT-3 in these segments. The expression of NT-3 in cells isolated from the different layers of 60-day antlers did not mirror that observed when whole tissues were used and may suggest regional specificity of NT-3 expression within antler tissues.
Gerrard, D.F; G.G. Sleivert; A. Goulding; S.R. Haines: J. M. Suttie. Clinical evaluation of New Zealand deer velvet antler on muscle strength and endurance in healthy male university athletes.
Goss, R. J. 1983. Deer antlers. Regeneration, Function, and evolution. Academic Press Inc., Orlando FL (ISBN 0-12-293080-0), 336p.
Goss RJ Anat Rec 1995 Mar;241(3):291-302 Future directions in antler research. Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA.
Through a series of interrogatories, unsolved problems of antler evolution, anatomy, development, physiology, and pathology are probed, with commentaries, on the following prospects for future research: 1. How could these improbable appendages have evolved mechanisms to commit suicide, jettison the corpse, and regenerate new ones every year? 2. By what developmental processes are antlers able to prescribe their own morphogenesis with mirror image accuracy year after year and in some cases produce deliberate asymmetries? 3. What causes the scalp to transform into velvet skin as a deer's first antlers develop? 4. Why do healing pedicle stumps give rise to antler buds instead of scar tissue? 5. How is the unprecedented rate of antler elongation related to the diameter and length of the structure to be grown? 6. How come wound healing by pedicle skin is held in abeyance for several months until new growth resumes? 7. How is it that tropical deer regenerate antlers at any time of year, while in temperate zones deer do so in seasonal unison? 8. How do deer find enough calcium to make such massive antlers in only a few months? 9. What is the nature of the bizarre tumors that some antlers grow following castration?
Gray, C. M., Taylor, M.L., Horton, M.A., Loudon, A.S.I., and Arnett, T.R. 1989. Studies with cells derived from growing deer antler. J. Endocrinol. 123: 91.
Gray C, Hukkanen M, Konttinen YT, Terenghi G, Arnett TR, Jones SJ, Burnstock G, Polak JM Neuroscience 1992 Oct;50(4):953-963 Rapid neural growth: calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P-containing nerves attain exceptional growth rates in regenerating deer antler. Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, University College, London, U.K.
Deer antler is a unique mineralized tissue which can produce very high growth rates of > 1 cm/day in large species. On completion of antler growth, the dermal tissues which cover the antler are shed and the underlying calcified tissue dies. After several months the old antler is discarded and growth of a new one begins. It is known that deer antlers are sensitive to touch and are innervated. The major aims of this study were to identify and localize by immunohistochemical techniques the type of innervation present, and to find out whether nerve fibres could exhibit growth rates comparable to those of antler. We have taken tissue sections from the tip and shaft of growing Red deer (Cervus elaphus) antlers at three stages of development; shortly after the initiation of regrowth, the rapid growth phase, and near the end of growth. Incubation of tissue sections with antisera to protein gene product 9.5 (a neural cytoplasmic protein), neurofilament triplet proteins (a neural cytoskeletal protein), substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (both of which are present in and synthesized by sensory neurons) showed the presence of immunoreactive nerve fibres in dermal, deep connective and perichondrial/periosteal tissues at all stages of antler growth. The sparse distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity was found in dermal tissue only at the earliest stage of antler development. Nerve fibres immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y, C-flanking peptide of neuropeptide Y and tyrosine hydroxylase, all present in postganglionic sympathetic nerves, were not observed at any stage of antler growth. Nerves expressing immunoreactivity for any of the neural markers or peptides employed could not be found in cartilage, osteoid or bone. These results show that antlers are innervated mainly by sensory nerves and that nerves can attain the exceptionally high growth rates found in regenerating antler.
Ha, H., S. H. Yoon, et al. 1990. Study for new hapatotropic agent from natural resources. I. Effect of antler and old antler on liver injury induced by benzopyrene in rats. Proc. Japanese Soc. Food & Nutrition 23: 9.
Han, S. H. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa of rats exposed to starvation, heat, cold and electric shock. J. Catholic Medical College 19: 157-164.
Hattori, M., X-W Yang, S. Kaneko, Y. Nomura & T. Namba. 1989. Constituents of the pilose antler of Cervus nippon. Shoyakugaku Zasshi 43: 173-176.
Huang SL, Kakiuchi N, Hattori M, Namba T Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1991 Feb;39(2):384-387 A new monitoring system of cultured myocardial cell motion: effect of pilose antler extract and cardioactive agents on spontaneous beating of myocardial cell sheets. Research Institute for Wakan-yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University.
Effects of various cardioactive agents and a water extract of the pilose antler of Cervus nippon var. mantchuricus on periodic beating of cultured myocardial cell sheets were examined by using an image analyzing system. Norepinephrine increased the beating rate and the beating amplitude, whereas digoxin and forskolin enlarged only the beating amplitude. Verapamil and propranolol decreased both the beating rate and the beating amplitude. The water extract of the pilose antler showed no remarkable effects in a standard medium (2.1 mM Ca2+). However, it significantly increased the beating amplitude when the beating was suppressed by replacement with a low calcium medium (0.5 mM Ca2+). A similar effect was found for 70% ethanol-soluble and -insoluble fractions of the extract.
Ivankina NF, Isay SV, Busarova NG, Mischenko Tya Comp Biochem Physiol [B] 1993 Sep;106(1):159-162 Prostaglandin-like activity, fatty acid and phospholipid composition of sika deer (Cervus nippon) antlers at different growth stages. State Medical Institute, Blagoveschensk, Russia.
1. The alteration of lipid composition has been shown to take place at different stages of antler growth. 2. The greatest amounts of phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been found during the most intense soft antler growth period. 3. The bioregulators of lipid origin which are prostaglandins of A, B, E and F groups have been found at the same stage.
Josephson, D. Concern raised about performance enhancing drugs in the US. BMJ I 998;3 17:702 (12 September).
Kalden, J.R., and J. Sieper. Oral collagen in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 1998; 41(2): 191-194.
Kamen, B. Red Deer Antler Velvet: Growth Hormone Connection, and More! Health Sciences Institute. 1998; 2(8): 1-2.
Kang, W. S. 1970. Influence of antler (deer horn) on the mesenteric mast cells of rates exposed to heat, cold or electric shock. J. Cathol. Med. College 19: 1-9.
Kaptchuk, T. and M. Croucher. 1987. The Healing Arts: Exploring the Medical Ways of the World. New York, Summit Books.
Kim, Y. E., D. K. Lim, et al. 1977. Biochemical studies on antler (Cervus nippon taiouanus) V: A study of glycolipids and phosholipids of antler velvet layer and pantocrin. Korean Biochem. J. 10: 153-164.
Kim, K. W. and S. W. Park. 1982. A study of the hemopoietic action of deer horn extract. Korean Biochem. J. 15: 151-157.
Kim, Y. E. and K. J. Kim. 1983. Biochemical studies on antler (Cervus nippon taiouanus). VI. Comparative study on the effect of lipid soluble fractions of antler spponge and velvet layers and pantocrin on the aldolase activity in the rat spinal nerves. Yakhak Hoeji 27: 235-243.
Kim, K. B. and S. I. Lee. 1985. Effects of several kinds of antler upon endocrine functions in rats. Kyung Hee Univ Med. J. ?8: 91-110.
Ko KM, Yip TT, Tsao SW, Kong YC, Fennessy P, Belew MC, Porath J Gen Comp Endocrinol 1986 Sep;63(3):431-440 Epidermal growth factor from deer (Cervus elaphus) submaxillary gland and velvet antler.
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activity was isolated for the first time from the submaxillary gland (SMG) and the velvet antler of red deer (Cervus elaphus) by a combination of Sephadex gel or DEAE-Sephacel and IMAC columns in succession. The semipurified cervine EGF-like activity (cEGF), with specific activity of 4.7 ng/micrograms protein from the velvet tissues, can generate a completely parallel competitive binding curve against mouse EGF in both radioreceptor assay (RRA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mitogenic activity of EGF from both tissues was demonstrated by stimulating the incorporation of [3H]thymidine in two different cell lines of fibroblast culture in a dose-dependent manner. The velvet layer may be the site of EGF synthesis outside the SMG.
Kong, Y., K. Ko, et al. 1987. Epidermal growth factor of the cervine velvet antler. Acta. Zool. Sin., 33: 301-308:
Lewis LK, Barrell GK Steroids 1994 Aug;59(8):490-492 Regional distribution of estradiol receptors in growing antlers. Animal and Veterinary Sciences Group, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand.
This study of estrogen receptors (ER) was carried out to confirm their presence and to determine their localisation in antler bones. Partially grown antlers were amputated from red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags, the skin removed, and samples taken of periosteum, cartilaginous tissue including perichondrium, and bone. Capacity and binding of free ER in the samples were calculated by Scatchard analysis of data obtained from a radioreceptor assay which utilised [3H]estradiol as tracer. High affinity ER (ka 1.3-3.4 x 10(10)/M) were detected in all tissues sampled with the exception of bone. Receptor capacity ranged from 12-74 fmol/mg protein, ranking the tissues for capacity in the following descending order: periosteum, cartilage, calcified cartilage. These results demonstrate the presence of ER in growing antlers and indicate regional localization of the receptors within these structures. The absence of ER in bone tissue within the antler suggests that the effect of estradiol on stimulation of mineralization in this tissue is indirect and must occur via its binding to the non-calcified tissues of antlers, e.g., periosteum, perichondrium, and cartilage.
Li C, Waldrup KA, Corson ID, Littlejohn RP, Suttie JM J Exp Zool 1995 Aug 1;272(5):345-355 Histogenesis of antlerogenic tissues cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo in red deer (Cervus elaphus). AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel, New Zealand.
In a previous study we showed that formation of deer pedicle and first antler proceeded through four ossification pattern change stages: intramembranous, transition, pedicle endochondral, and antler endochondral. In the present study antlerogenic tissues (antlerogenic periosteum, apical periosteum/perichondrium, and apical perichondrial of pedicle and antler) taken from four developmental stages were cultivated in diffusion chambers in vivo as autografts for 42-68 days. The results showed that all the cultivated tissues without exception formed trabecular bone de novo, irrespective of whether they were forming osseous, osseocartilaginous, or cartilaginous tissue at the time of initial implant surgery; in two cases in the apical perichondria from antler group, avascularized cartilage also formed. Therefore, the antlerogenic cells, like the progenitor cells of somatic secondary type cartilage, have a tendency to differentiate into osteoblasts and then form trabecular bone. Consequently, the differentiation pathway whereby antlerogenic cells change from forming osteoblasts to forming chondroblasts during pedicle formation is caused by extrinsic factors. Both oxygen tension and mechanical pressure are postulated to be the factors that cause this alteration of the differentiation pathway.
Marchenko LI, Kats MA Vrach Delo 1975 Aug;8:135-136 Anaphylactic shock as a response to subcutaneous administration of pantocrine. Article in Russian
Miller SC, Bowman BM, Jee WS Bone 1995 Oct;17(4 Suppl):117S-123S Available animal models of osteopenia--small and large. Division of Radiobiology, School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112, USA.
Animal models of osteopenia are reviewed. Endocrine excess or deficiency conditions include ovariectomy, orchidectomy, glucocorticoid excess and other endocrine states. Seasonal and reproductive cycles are usually transient and include pregnancy and lactation, egg-laying, antler formation and hibernation. Dietary conditions include calcium deficiencies, phosphate excess and vitamin C and D deficiencies. Mechanical usage effects include skeletal underloading models. Aging is also associated with osteopenia in many species.
Morreal, P; R. Manopulo; M. Galati; L. Boccanera; G. Saponati; L. Bocchi. Comparison of the antiinflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1996; 23:1 385-I 391.
Muir, P. D., Sykes, A.R., Barrell, G.K. 1988. Changes in blood content and histology during growth of antlers in red deer, Cervus elaphus, and their relationship to plasma testosterone levels. J. Anat. 158: 31-42.:
Narimanov AA, Kuznetsova SM, Miakisheva SN Radiobiologiia 1990 Mar;30(2):170-174 The modifying action of the Japanese pagoda tree (Sophora japonica) and pantocrine in radiation lesions. [Article in Russian]
A study was made of the effect of Sophora japonica and pantocrine on irradiated (2.5 Gy) human lymphoblastoid cells. The radioprotective effect was manifested with the preparations injected separately after irradiation. The highest radioprotective effect was produced by the mixture of the preparations, the injection 15 min after irradiation being more effective than preinjection. The protective effect of the agents was studied on mongrel mice after the administration thereof for the purposes of protection protection-and-treatment and treatment. Sophora japonica and pantocrine were shown to increase the survival rate of lethally exposed mice (LD90/30) when administered in a combination 5-15 min before irradiation and when used for the purposes of protection--and--treatment: 53.3% and 50% of animals, respectively, survived by day 30 following irradiation. DMF was 1.25.
Palmieri, L.;A. Conte; L. Giovannini; P Lualdi; G. Ronca. Metabolic fate of exogenous chondroitin sulfate in the experimental animal. Arzneim-Forsch Drug Res I 990; 40 (l):319-323.
Price JS, Oyajobi BO, Nalin AM, Frazer A, Russell RG, Sandell LJ Dev Dyn 1996 Mar;205(3):332-347 Chondrogenesis in the regenerating antler tip in red deer: expression of collagen types I, IIA, IIB, and X demonstrated by in situ nucleic acid hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Department of Human Metabolism and Clinical Biochemistry, University of Sheffield Medical School, U.K.
The annual regrowth of antlers in male deer is a unique example of complete bone regeneration occurring in an adult animal. Growth is initiated at the distal antler tip, which is similar to the epiphyseal growth plate in some respects. However, there is some debate as to whether this process represents "true" endochondral ossification. As part of the characterization of the developmental process in pre-osseus antler tissue, we have studied, by in situ hybridization, the spatial expression of mRNAs for types I, II, and X collagen. Viewed in a coronal plane, type I procollagen mRNA was observed in skin, the fibrous perichondrium, and the densely cellular area immediately adjacent to the perichondrium. Below this area, as cells began to assume a columnar arrangement and coincident with the appearance of a vasculature and synthesis of a cartilaginous matrix, transcripts for types I, IIA, IIB procollagen and X collagen were detected. Further down in the cartilage zone, the pattern of type I procollagen mRNA expression was altered. Here, the signal was detected only in a morphologically distinct subpopulation of small, flattened cells within the intercellular matrix at the periphery of the columns of chondrocytes. The alternative splice form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA), characteristic of chondroprogenitor cells (Sandell et al. [1991] J. Cell Biol. 114:1307-1319), was expressed by a subset of cells in the upper region of the columns, indicating that this zone contains a population of prechondrocytic cells. Positive hybridization to type IIA was most abundant in these cells. In contrast, transcripts for the other procollagen splice form (IIB) and type X collagen were expressed by chondrocytes throughout the whole of the cartilage region studied. The translation and export of type II collagen and type X collagen were confirmed by detecting specific immunoreactivity for each. The spatial distribution of immunoreactivity for collagen types II and X was consistent with that of corresponding mRNAs. These data demonstrate for the first time the distinct pattern of expression of genes for major cartilage matrix macromolecules, the expression of the differentially spliced form of type II procollagen mRNA (IIA), and specifically the co-localization of types II and X collagen in the developing antler tip. Taken together, they strongly indicate that antler growth involves an endochondral process.
Ramirez V, Brown RD Comp Biochem Physiol A 1988;89(2):279-281 A technique for the in vitro incubation of deer antler tissue. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Texas A&I University, Kingsville 78363.
1. A procedure for the in vitro incubation of velvet deer antler tissue was developed. Biopsy samples were collected in June with a trephine from 2 adult white-tailed deer and incubated in modified BGJb medium up to 48 hr. Calcium (Ca) and hydroxyproline (OH-proline) concentrations in the tissue were determined.
2. A significant increase (P less than 0.05) in Ca was exhibited at 4 and 8 hr of incubation, and, after replenishment of media, at 48 hr.
3. Hydroxyproline concentrations continued to rise throughout the duration of the incubation period and were significantly higher than controls (P less than 0.05) at 16, 24, and 48 hr. 4. Results suggest antler tissue can be incubated in vitro with the protocol described, although length of incubation may vary with parameter measured.
Rucklidge GJ, Milne G, Bos KJ, Farquharson C, Robins SP Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 1997 Oct;118(2):303-308 Deer antler does not represent a typical endochondral growth system: immunoidentification of collagen type X but little collagen type II in growing antler tissue. Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, U.K.
The collagen isotypes present at early (6 week) and late (5 month) stages of growing deer antler were isolated and identified. Pepsin-digested collagens were separated by differential salt fractionation, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and subsequently identified by immunostaining. Cyanogen bromide digestion of antler tissue was used to establish a collagen type-specific pattern of peptides, and these were also identified by immunoblotting. Collagen type I was found to be the major collagen in both early- and late-stage antler. Collagen type II was present in the young antler in small amounts but was not confined to the soft "cartilaginous" tip of the antler. Collagen type XI was found in the pepsin digest of the young antler, but collagen type IX was not present at either stage of antler growth. Collagen type X was found in the young antler in all fractions studied. Microscopic study showed that the deer antler did not possess a discrete growth plate as found in endochondral bone growth. Unequivocal immunolocalization of the different collagen types in the antler were unsuccessful. These results show that, despite the presence in the antler of many cartilage collagens, growth does not occur through a simple endochondral process.
Sadighi M, Haines SR, Skottner A, Harris AJ, Suttie JM J Endocrinol 1994 Dec;143(3):461-469 AgResearch, Invermay Agricultural Centre, Mosgiel, New Zealand Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-II on the growth of antler cells in vitro.
The effects of insulin-like growth factors -I and -II (IGF-I and -II) on the growth of undifferentiated (fibroblast zone) cells from the growing tip of red deer velvet antlers and from cells 1.5 cm distal to the growing tip (cartilage zone) were investigated in primary cell culture. The addition of IGF-I or IGF-II to the medium of cultures preincubated in serum-free medium for 24 h increased the rate of [3H]thymidine uptake in a dose-dependent manner in both cell types, with maximal stimulation occurring when 1 nM-30 nM was added. The addition of IGF-II to the incubation medium containing IGF-I did not cause a further increase in [3H]thymidine uptake in either cell type over and above each growth factor alone, indicating that there were unlikely to be synergistic effects of IGF-II on the mitogenicity of IGF-I. Binding studies were carried out using 3 x 10(5) fibroblast zone cells and cartilage zone cells after they had been incubated in serum-free medium for 24 h. 125I-Labelled IGF-I (10(-9) M) in a final volume of 200 microliters was added to each culture and incubation carried out at 4 degrees C for a further hour. 125I-Labelled IGF-I bound specifically to both fibroblasts and cartilage zone cells; binding was displaced by both unlabelled IGF-I and by IGF-I antibody.
Sempere AJ, Grimberg R, Silve C, Tau C, Garabedian M Endocrinology 1989 Nov;125(5):2312-2319 Evidence for extrarenal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin during physiological bone growth: in vivo and in vitro production by deer antler cells. Centre d'Etudes Biologiques des Animaux Sauvages (CNRS), Beauvoir-sur-Niort, France.
The development of deer antler follows a pattern similar to that described for mammalian endochondral ossification and has been proposed as a suitable model for studies of bone growth. We investigated seasonal changes in the plasma concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] and calcium and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in relation to the antler cycle during 1 yr in 4 captive roe deer and measured these biological parameters in 27 wild roe deer during their antler cycle. A significant elevation of 1,25-(OH)2D in peripheral plasma, with no parallel increase in the concentration of its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D, was observed to accompany the rapid growth phase of the antler cycle in captive (P less than 0.001) and wild (P less than 0.025) deer. During the same phase there was a gradient in levels of 1,25-(OH)2D in antler vs. jugular blood (P less than 0.01). In addition, velvet cells in culture proved to have the ability to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 into a more polar derivative, which was indistinguishable from true 1,25-(OH)2D3 with regard to its chromatographic properties, its UV absorbance at 254 nm, and its ability to bind to the 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors present in chick intestinal cytosol. These in vivo and in vitro results strongly suggest that local production of 1,25-(OH)2D by the antler cells does occur in vivo and may contribute to the increase in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D during bone growth.
Setnikar, I.; C. Giacchetti; G. Zanolo 1986. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in dog and in man.Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res; 36 (I): 729-735.
Setnikar, I.; R. Palumbo; S. Canali; G. Zanolo 1993. Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in man.Arzneim.-Forsch. Drug Res; 43(l I):1109-1113.
Sim, J. S., Sunwoo, H. H. and Hudson, R. J. 1995a. Cell growth promoting factors in water-soluble fraction of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus) antler. page 111, 1st International Conference on East-West Perspectives on Functional Foods, Singapore, September, 26-29, 1995.
Sim, J. S., Sunwoo, H. H., Hudson R. J. and Kurylo, S. L. 1995b. Chemical and pharmacological characterization of Canadian elk (Cervus elaphus) antler extracts. page 68, 3rd World congress of medicinal acupuncture and natural medicine, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 10-12-1995.
Sunwoo, H. H. Nakano, T. Hudson, R. J. and Sim, J. S. 1995. Chemical composition of antlers from wapiti (Cervus elaphus). J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 2846-2849.
Sunwoo, H. H. 1998. Isolation and characterization of proteoglycans in growing antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Chapter 8 In Chemical characterization of growing antlers of Wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Ph. D. thesis, University of Alberta.
Sunwoo, H. H., Nakano, T. and Sim, J. S. 1997. Effect of water soluble extract from antlers of wapiti (Cervus elaphus) on the growth of fibroblasts. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 77:343-345.
Sunwoo, H. H. and Sim, J. S. 1996. Chemical and pharmacological characterization of Canadian elk (Cervus eoaphus) antler extracts. 96–World Federation Symposium of Korean Scientists and Engineers Association, June 28 – July 4, 1996, Seoul Korea, WFKSEA Prodeedings 96: 706-713.
Suttie, J. M., P. D. GLuckman, et al. 1985. Insulin like growth factor 1: antler stimulating hormone? Endocrinol. 116: 846-848:
Suttie, J. M., P. F. Fennessy, et al. 1989. Pulsatile growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors and antler development in red deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus) stags. J. Endocrinol. 121: 351-360.
Suttie, J. M., P. F. Fennessy, et al. 1991. Antler growth in deer. Proc. Deer Course for Veterinarians (Deer Branch, NZ Vet Assoc) 8: 155-168.
Suttie, J. M., I. D. Corson, et al. 1991. Insulin-like growth factor 1, growth and body composition in red deer stags. Anim. Prod. 53: 237-242.
Sutti, J. M., Fennessy, P. F., Haines, S. R., Sadighi, M., Kerr, D.R. and Issacs, C. 1994. The New Zealand velvet antler industry: Background and research findings. International symposium on Cervi Parvum Cornu. KSP Proceedings. Oct. &, 1994. Seoul, Korea, pp 86-135.
Takikawa, K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash injury. II. Evaluation of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy. Folia Pharmacol. Japon. 68: 473-488. [Article in Japanese]
Takikawa, K., N. Kokubu, et al. 1972. Studies on experimental whiplash injury. III. Changes in enzyme activiation of cervicxal cords and effect of Pantui extracts, Pantocrin as a remedy. Folia Pharmacol Japon. 68: 489-493.
Trentham, D.E.; RA. Dynesius-Trentham; F.J. Orav; et al. 1993, Effects of oral administration of type II collagen on rheumatoid arthritis. Science 261:1 727-1730.
Wang, B. 1996, Advances in research of chemistry, pharmacology and clinical application of pilose antler. Proceedings of the 1996 International Symposium on Deer Science and Deer Products. I4-31.
Wang, B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Effects of repeated administration of deer antler extract on biochemical changes related to aging in senescence-accelerated mice. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
Wang, B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Stimulating effect of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated mice in vivo. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 36: 2593-2598.
Wang, B. X., X. H. Zhao, et al. 1988. Inhibition of liquid peroxidation bu deer antler (Rokujo) extract in vivo and in vitro. J. Med. Pharm. Soc. for WAKAN-Yaku 5: 123-128.
Wang BX, Zhao XH, Qi SB, Yang XW, Kaneko S, Hattori M, Namba T, Nomura Y Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1988 Jul;36(7):2593-2598 Stimulating effect of deer antler extract on protein synthesis in senescence-accelerated mice in vivo.
Wang BX, Zhou QL Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1991;26(9):714-720 Advances in the chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on pilose antler. [Article in Chinese]
Wang BX, Liu AJ, Cheng XJ, Wang QG, Wei GR, Cui JC Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1985 May;20(5):321-325 Anti-ulcer action of the polysaccharides isolated from pilose antler. [Article in Chinese]
Wang BX, Chen XG, Xu HB, Zhang W, Zhang J Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(9):652-657 Effect of polyamines isolated from pilose antler (PASPA) on RNA polymerase activities in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun.
The incorporations of [3H] leucine into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse liver were increased when PASPA was given to mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg for 4 successive days. The RNA polymerase activity, especially the RNA polymerase II activity in the solubilized liver nuclear fraction of PASPA-treated mice was also increased. In vitro experiment demonstrated that PASPA increased the RNA polymerase activity significantly in mouse liver nuclei at a concentration of 1 microgram/ml. These results suggest that the enhancement of RNA polymerase activities, particularly RNA polymerase II activity, induced by PASPA treatment is responsible for the increase in synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver tissue.
Wang BX, Chen XG, Zhang W Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1990;25(5):321-325 Influence of the active compounds isolated from pilose antler on syntheses of protein and RNA in mouse liver. [Article in Chinese] Department of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
The polyamines of pilose antler (PASPA) consist of putrescine (PU, 70.9%), spermidine (SPD, 26.3%) and spermine (SP, 2.8%). The incorporations of [3H] leucine into protein and [3H] uridine into RNA in mouse liver tissue were increased when PASPA was given orally to mice at the dose of 30 mg/kg for 4 successive days. The incorporations of [3H] leucine into liver protein and [3H] uridine into the cytosolic and nuclear RNA were also increased by treatment with PU (21 mg/kg). In addition, the RNA polymerase activity in the solubilized liver nuclear fraction of PU (21 mg/kg)-treated mice was increased. SPD only promoted the synthesis of protein in mouse liver tissue at the dose of 8 mg/kg. However, SP showed no effect on the synthesis of protein and RNA polymerase activity under the used dose (1 mg/kg). The results suggest that PASPA is the main active substance responsible for the promotion of the synthesis of protein and RNA in mouse liver.
Yasui, N., and M.E. Nimni. 1998. Cartilage collagens. In: Collagen, Volume I. M.E. Nimmi, ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 225-24 I.
Yoon, P. 1989. The effect of deer horn on the experimental anemia of rabbits. Journal Pharmaochemical Society Korea. 8: 6-11.
Yudin, A. M. and Y. L. Dubryakov 1974. A guide for the preparation and storage of uncalcified male antlers as a medicinal raw material. In Reindeer antlers, Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Far East Science Center. Vladivostock.
Zhao QC, Kiyohara H, Nagai T, Yamada H Carbohydr Res 1992 Jun 16;230(2):361-372 Structure of the complement-activating proteoglycan from the pilose antler of Cervus nippon Temminck. Oriental Medicine Research Center, Kitasato Institute, Tokyo, Japan.
An anti-complementary polysaccharide, DWA-2, isolated from an unossified pilose antler of C. nippon Temminck by digestion with pronase, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography, consisted mainly of GalNAc, GlcA, IdoA, and sulfate in the molar ratios 1.0:0.6:0.3:0.8, and small proportions of Man, Gal, GlcNAc, and protein (4.5%). Methylation analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and degradation with enzymes indicated that DWA-2 contained chondroitin sulfate A-, B-, and C-like moieties. DWA-2 showed potent anti-complementary activity, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis indicated that it cleaved complement C3 in the absence of Ca2+ ion. Digestion of DWA-2 with chondroitinase ABC or ACI reduced the anti-complementary activity to a low level, but digestion with chondroitinase B reduced the activity by approximately 40% and the enzyme-resistant fraction still showed a significant activity.
Zhao D, Zhang X, Zhou F, Wei Z, Tian H Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 1990 Jan;15(1):37-39 Relation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characteristics of pilose antler and its traditional quality grade. [Article in Chinese] Beijing Institute for Drug Control.
The relationship between FTIR characteristics of Pilose Antler and its traditional quality grade was studied and a rule governing its quality value "Z" was found. We have thus advanced a new objective target for preparing Pilose Antler tablets and powder.
Zhang ZQ, Zhang Y, Wang BX, Zhou HO, Wang Y, Zhang H Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 1992;27(5):321-324 Purification and partial characterization of anti-inflammatory peptide from pilose antler of Cervus nippon Temminck. Department of Pharmacology, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Materia Medica of Jilin Province, Changchun.
An anti-inflammatory compound was purified and isolated from pilose antler of Cervus nippon Temminck by dialysis, gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography techniques. HPLC and N-terminal amion acid analysis identified the compound as a homogeneous peptide. The peptide is composed of 68 amino acids and its molecular weight as determined by amino analysis, is about 7200.
Zhiliaev EV, Dobriakov IuI Klin Med (Mosk) 1995;73(5):77-78 Experience in the use of rantarine in the treatment of internal diseases. [Article in Russian]
Zioupos P, Wang XT, Currey JD J Biomech 1996 Aug;29(8):989-1002 Experimental and theoretical quantification of the development of damage infatigue tests of bone and antler. Department of Biology, University of York, U.K.
This study concerns the development of damage (as measured by a reduction in elastic modulus) in two kinds of bones differing considerably in their degrees of mineralisation: laminar bone from bovine femur and osteonal bone from red deer antler. Antler bone is much tougher than 'ordinary' bone and its failure properties have been investigated in: (i) monotonic tensile tests and (ii) creep rupture experiments. Tensile fatigue is another way of examining how damage develops in bone. The development of damage in the present fatigue tests was non-linear with the cycle number, the degree of non-linearity was dependent on the level of stress and followed a clearly different course for bone and antler. Antler was a more damage-tolerant material, being able to achieve a reduction in the final modulus of elasticity, just prior to failure, three times greater than ‘ordinary’ bone. The evolution of damage is quantified by an empirical and a graphical method and by the use of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) expressions. The CDM method shows important conditions, found in antler, but not in bone, that seen necessary for achieving stable fractures and consequently producing very tough materials.
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©1998-2000 Sportswell Limited. All rights reserved. All information is intended for your general knowledge only and is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment for specific medical conditions. The Food and Drug Administration has not evaluated the statements on this site. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease. You should seek prompt medical care for any specific health issues and consult your physician before starting a new health or fitness regime. NOTE: People with a medical challenge, pregnant and lactating women, and those already under a physician's care should consult with their physician before using this product."Velvita" is a dietary supplement.As individuals differ, so will results. Use of this online service is subject to this disclaimer and the Terms of Use "Velvita" is a trade mark for premium quality deer velvet antler marketed by Sportswell Limited.